Natural language processing (NLP) is a subfield of linguistics, computer science, information engineering, and artificial intelligence concerned with the interactions between computers and human (natural) languages, in particular how to program computers to process and analyze large amounts of natural language data.
NLP is important because it helps resolve ambiguity in language and adds useful numeric structure to the data for many downstream applications, such as speech recognition or text analytics.

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Odoo • Image and Text

Text mining accomplishes this through the use of a variety of analysis methodologies; natural language processing (NLP) is one of them. ... Instead, in text mining the main scope is to discover relevant information that is possibly unknown and hidden in the context of other information.

Natural language processing helps computers communicate with humans in their own language and scales other language-related tasks. For example, NLP makes it possible for computers to read text, hear speech, interpret it, measure sentiment and determine which parts are important.